Infants are not color blind, although their ability to perceive and distinguish colors may be less developed than that of adults. In fact, research has shown that infants are born with the ability to perceive and distinguish between some colors, and their color vision improves and becomes more refined over time. To understand the perception of color in infants, it is helpful to first understand how humans perceive color in general. The human eye contains three types of cone cells, which are specialized cells in the retina that are sensitive to different wavelengths of light. These cone cells allow us to perceive a wide range of colors. The three types of cone cells are sensitive to short wavelengths (blue light), medium wavelengths (green light), and long wavelengths (red light). When light of different wavelengths enters the eye, it activates different combinations of cone cells, which the brain then interprets as different colors.
Infants are born with all three types of cone cells, but their color perception is limited in the first few months of life. This is because their brain is still developing and learning to process and interpret the information coming from the cone cells. In the first few months of life, infants are only able to perceive light and dark, as well as some basic colors such as red and yellow. As their brain development progresses, their color perception becomes more refined and they are able to perceive and distinguish between a wider range of colors.
Studies have shown that infants as young as two to four months old are able to perceive and distinguish between different shades of red, yellow, and green. By six to eight months of age, infants are able to perceive and distinguish between most colors, although their color perception may still be less refined than that of adults. For example, they may have difficulty distinguishing between similar shades of color, such as light blue and dark blue.